Cultural contact essay
More than one scientist reports being asked for a different data set every week for months, consuming all their research time for a semester or more. Taking up research time in what often appear to be unnecessary or excessive demands can be one form of harassment. In other cases, the tone of online critiques sometimes involves inappropriate comments that presumably would not occur face to face. Someone posted that my late father a methodologist would be ashamed of me. Others have impugned my motives for writing this plea for civility.
Similarly, some targets have reported to me public assertions of their alleged dishonesty, incompetence, or mercenary motives. Personal insults are not scientific discourse. Our colleagues at all career stages have reported leaving the field because of what they see as sheer adversarial viciousness. I have heard from graduate students opting out of academia, assistant professors afraid to come up for tenure, midcareer people wondering how to protect their labs, and senior faculty retiring early, all reportedly because of an atmosphere of methodological intimidation.
I am not naming names of alleged victims because, to a person, these dozens of individuals tell me they are afraid to go public for fear of retaliation. I am also not naming names of alleged bullies because rare but vicious ad hominem smear tactics are already damaging our field, and they do not represent the majority of us. Instead, I am describing a dangerous minority trend that has an outsized impact and a chilling effect on scientific discourse. I am not a primary target, but my goal is to give voice to others too afraid to object publicly.
To be sure, constructive critics have a role, with their rebuttals and letters-to-the-editor subject to editorial oversight and peer review for tone, substance, and legitimacy. Some moderated social media groups monitor individual posts to ensure they are appropriate. If they request the original data, scientific norms demand delivery within reasonable constraints. All these venues respect the target.
All this strengthens our field, because APS innovates via expert consensus and explicit editorial policies. These venues offer continuing education, open discussion, and quality control. These constructive efforts draw on the volunteer talent of many, in the service of the greater good and respecting the individual investigator. But some critics do engage in public shaming and blaming, often implying dishonesty on the part of the target and other innuendo based on unchecked assumptions.
Targets often seem to be chosen for scientifically irrelevant reasons: their contrary opinions, professional prominence, or career-stage vulnerability. Most self-appointed critics do not behave unethically, but some do so more than others. One hopes that all critics aim to improve the field, not harm people. But the fact is that some inappropriate critiques are harming people. They are a far cry from temperate peer-reviewed critiques, which serve science without destroying lives.
Let me be clear: This column does not aim to criticize such standard peer-review, or, for that matter, the newer open-science initiatives.
Ultimately, science is a community, and we are in it together. We agree to abide by scientific standards, ethical norms, and mutual respect. We trust but verify, and science improves in the process. Psychological science has achieved much through collaboration, but also through responding to constructive adversaries who make their critiques respectfully. The key word here is constructive. Look for psychological scientists to share their insights, visions, and concerns about the future of scientific discourse in upcoming issues of the Observer.
The article made me a little bit sad, and I was inclined to just keep my response short and sweet, but then it seemed worth the trouble to give some context. Hence, they are easy targets for anyone with a grudge, or who wishes to make ad-hominem attacks. Understanding the constituent properties of quantitative measurement and what what means for any claim they make which relies upon an assumption of quantity. Michell, J. Quantitative science and the definition of measurement in Psychology. British Journal of Psychology, 88, 3, Understanding the assignment of meaning by reading and fully digesting: Maraun, M.
The business and cultural contact grows more and more widely between countries; pros and cons
Cargo Cult Science: some remarks on science, pseudoscience, and learning how not to fool yourself. Engineering and Science, 37, 7, Then, like me, you will find that no-one takes umbrage, writes nasty comments, or indeed shows much interest in what you publish, say, or convey publicly — because you are brutally honest about reporting the magnitude of error alongside the accuracy, and the key assumptions made and justified , for every result you present. American Psychologist, 70, 6, You must do the best you can — if you know anything at all wrong, or possibly wrong to explain it.
If you make a theory, for example, and advertise it, or put it out, then you must also put down all the facts that disagree with it, as well as those that agree with it. Now look at the articles published in APS journals.. Until psychologists show the kind of scientific integrity that Dick Feynman spoke of, they will continue to attract ridicule, insult, and the indifference of the public outside of academia. Instead, each scholar has been shunned in various nasty ways by colleagues and the profession. The shrieks and howls of anguish from many in psychology at being publicly criticised are merely the result of their own disingenuity in the reporting of their research.
Thank you for this updated version of the article. I must say it is somewhat ironic that the very social media reaction this criticizes appears to have been the reason for why the original version was rewritten. Examples of such contacts include bathing or changing the orientation of the patient. Indirect contact propagation involves contact between a susceptible host and a susceptible host, such as unmodified gloves between medical devices, bandages, patients, or hands that have not been washed.
In direct proliferation, the infectious agent is transferred from the reservoir to the susceptible host by direct contact or droplet diffusion. Through skin contact, kissing and sexual contact are in direct contact. Direct contact also refers to contact with soil or vegetation containing infectious organisms. Therefore, infectious mononucleosis "kiss disease" and gonorrhea are transmitted from person to person through direct contact.
Hookworms spread by direct contact with contaminated soil. Droplet diffusion refers to a relatively large, short-range aerosol spray that sneezes, coughs or even by speaking.
INCREASING BUSINESS AND CULTURAL CONTACT BETWEEN COUNTRIES
Droplet diffusion is classified as direct because it is delivered by direct injection several feet before the droplet falls to the ground. Pertussis and meningococcal infections are examples of diseases spreading to susceptible hosts via droplet diffusion from infectious patients. The virus usually diffuses by intimate contact with respiratory droplets of the patient's infection. The main way of communication is intimate contact. Infected people sneeze or cough in the air, and their sprint distance is about 3 feet.
When a healthy person is standing near about 3 feet , the droplets enter the mucosa of the nose, eyes and mouth. SARS can spread by touching infected objects and then touching nose, eyes, mouth. Close contact also means sharing your tableware, kissing and hugging, and talking to and standing with the patient. There is no evidence data on airborne propagation. You can prevent breeding by identifying and quarantining infected objects. The most important step to prevent disease spread is the use of alcohol based hand sanitizer, or hand disinfection with soap and water.
Because waterdrops spread SARS, it is also important to wear appropriate masks. In planning or land use environments, zoning is to divide the land within the community into areas with different provisions depending on their use. Zoning and other land use management methods were developed with the primary purpose of promoting the health, safety, and happiness of residents, while minimizing the negative impact of activities and use to other people. Zoning plan If you need different management areas, you can create a zoning plan to show boundaries, classification, management, and other activities permitted or prohibited in each area.
Sub-targets for each region can also be provided. Partition plans can be included in the management plan or listed separately. In many cases, the zoning plan is prepared or already exists to notify the management plan. After that, we summarize the findings of the management plan.
The specific constraints and conditions applicable to each field must be clearly stated There are no setting formulas for identifying the management area in the recognition area and preparation planning. Planners and planning teams should begin with relevant management objectives. The criteria specified in the zone should be agreed on the basis of the purpose of the region and the range of options developed.source link
Globalization In Avatar free essay sample - New York Essays
Use the best available information and the professional judgment of the interdisciplinary planning team to determine the territory. Computer generated spatial representation is often capable of being executed and displayed at the correct ratio with the appropriate available resource information available. You can integrate various information overlays so that planners can achieve the best balance between protection and use to achieve regional targeting.
Contact lens When contact lenses were invented, the world of vision correction has changed completely. Whether discrete or revolutionary, contact lenses provide a new viable option for ancient problems.
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After centuries of engineering and discovery, contact lenses have grown dramatically. Currently, contact lenses are rigid or flexible for breathable or continuous wear, are breathable, and provide ultraviolet protection. The contact lens industry has developed new innovative technologies to make contacts more comfortable, convenient, and easy to use. Therefore, one of the first steps in contact lens consultation is to discuss with your ophthalmologist about some lifestyle and health factors that may affect the type of contact that is best suited to you.
Some of the options to consider is whether you like daily disposable lenses or monthly disposable lenses as well as soft and hard breathable GP lenses. If you have special eye conditions such as astigmatism and dry eye syndrome, your ophthalmologist will need special special for your type or brand to meet your optimum comfort and vision needs You may make a recommendation. If you decide to wear contact lenses, it is important that the lenses are worn and comfortable, and you understand the safety and hygiene conditions of contact lenses.
Inspection of contact lenses involves comprehensive eye examination to check the overall health of the eye, general vision prescription, then contact lens consultation and measurement determine appropriate lens fit It will be.